Recording a contract in accounting is a critical aspect of maintaining accurate financial records for any business. Properly recording a contract ensures that all relevant information is captured and that the financial statements reflect the appropriate revenue recognition.
Here`s a rundown of the steps involved in recording a contract in accounting:
Step 1: Review the contract
The first step is to review the contract in detail. This includes identifying the terms and conditions of the agreement, the payment terms, and any obligations or restrictions that may impact revenue recognition. Some key aspects to look out for include delivery and acceptance criteria, warranties, and termination clauses.
Step 2: Determine the revenue recognition method
Once you`ve reviewed the contract, the next step is to determine the appropriate revenue recognition method. There are two types of revenue recognition methods: the percentage-of-completion method and the completed-contract method.
The percentage-of-completion method recognizes revenue as the work progresses, based on the proportion of the completion of the contract. The completed-contract method recognizes revenue only when the contract is completed.
Step 3: Record the contract
To record the contract, you`ll first need to create a contract account or job account, depending on the nature of the contract. This account should capture all the financial information related to the contract, including revenues, costs, and expenses.
Next, record the initial transaction for the contract. This includes debiting the contract account for the total amount of the contract and crediting the cash account if a payment has been received. If no payment has been received, the contract account is debited while accounts receivable is credited.
Step 4: Recognize revenue
Using the revenue recognition method determined in step 2, recognize revenue as the work progresses. This includes recording the percentage of completion in the contract account, based on the work completed to date.
Step 5: Record expenses
Record all expenses related to the contract in the contract account. This includes direct costs such as labour and materials, as well as indirect costs such as overheads.
Step 6: Recognize profit
At the end of the contract, recognize the profit by calculating the total revenue and subtracting the total expenses. This should yield the total profit for the contract.
In conclusion, recording a contract in accounting requires careful attention to detail and an understanding of revenue recognition principles. By following the steps outlined above, businesses can ensure that their financial records are accurate and up-to-date.